孫子兵法三十六計名言解讀懶人包

 

《孫子兵法》又稱《孫武兵法》、《吳孫子兵法》、《孫子兵書》、《孫武兵書》等,英文名為《The Art of War》,是中國古典軍事文化遺產中的璀璨瑰寶,是中國優秀文化傳統的重要組成部分,是世界三大兵書之一(另外兩部是:《 戰爭論》(克勞塞維茨) ,《五輪書》(宮本武藏) )其內容博大精深,思想精邃富贍,邏輯縝密嚴謹。 作者為春秋末年的齊國人孫武(字長卿)。

這本書的作者是(春秋)孫武和(秦)楊南柯,書厚且大,總共431頁。 開始的計畫是趁著國慶日讀完,這幾天每天都花了很長時間,讀到現在才讀到了的《三十六計》的第五計(趁火打劫)。 因為還有很多學業任務沒有完成,所以把計畫改為這周讀完《孫子兵法》,下周讀完《三十六計》,這樣就能輕鬆點,壓力沒那麼大,畢竟課外讀物是用來放鬆的,不是給自己造成學習壓力的。
《孫子兵法》總共13篇,差不多5900多字,而《孫子兵法·三十六計》這本書的特點是對每一篇的內容進行拆分,根據段落來作為一小節分析,基本上都是好幾段作為一小節,每節都舉出幾個例子來說明(大多數都是古代打仗的經典例子), 以此來加深理解。

《孫子兵法》短小精悍,極富智慧。 其中有很多精彩的句子,如經典的「兵者,詭道也。 」「知己知彼,百戰不殆。 」「兵貴神速。 」
在我看來,雖然它是用於指導戰爭實踐的,但是很多思想對於日常生活同樣適用。 比如「子曰:凡先處戰地而待敵者佚,後處戰地而趨敵者勞。 故善戰者,致人而不致于人。 」
(生活中也是一樣,先出發的比掐著點到的顯得更加遊刃有餘,我以前常常因為掐著時間點而讓自己疲憊不堪。 )
又如「以吾度之,越人之兵雖多,亦奚益于勝哉?故曰:勝可為也。 敵雖眾,可使無鬥。 」(正如這句話所表達的,打仗不是人越多越好,勝利是可以爭取的。 有時一件事情看著困難重重,難以克服,但是努力爭取也是能成功的。 )

「故用兵之法,無恃其不來,恃吾有以待也;無恃其不攻,恃吾有所不可攻也。 」(這是我特別喜歡的一句,它告訴我們任何時候都不能抱有僥倖的心理。 是啊,無論什麼事情都是這樣的,當抱有僥倖心裡的時候,其實內心深處還是懼怕的,還不如自己做好準備,當事情發生時也不會慌了手腳。 )

 

孫子兵法作者心得名言The Art of War Sun Tzu

 

孫子兵法第一套 勝戰計 Chapter 1: Winning Stratagems

第一計 瞞天過海 crossing the sea under camouflage
備周而意怠,常見則不疑,陰在陽之內,不在陽之對。 太陽,太陰。

譯:認為準備萬分周到,就容易鬆勁;平時看慣了的,就往往不在懷疑了,秘計隱藏在暴露的事物中,而不是和公開的形式相排斥。 非常公開的往往蘊藏著非常機密的。

Mask your real goals, by using the ruse of a fake goal, until the real goal is achieved. Tactically, this is known as an ‘open feint’: in front of everyone, you point west, when your goal is actually in the east.

第二計 圍魏救趙 relieving the state of Zhao by besieging the state of Wei
共敵不如分敵,敵陽不如敵陰。

譯:樹敵不可過多,對敵要各個擊破,對現在還不忙於消滅的,要隱藏我們的意圖。

When the enemy is too strong to be attacked directly, then attack something he holds dear. Know that he cannot be superior in all things. Somewhere there is a gap in the armour, a weakness that can be attacked instead. The idea here is to avoid a head-on battle with a strong enemy, and instead strike at his weakness elsewhere. This will force the strong enemy to retreat in order to support his weakness. Battling against the now tired and low-morale enemy will give a much higher chance of success.

 

第三計 借刀殺人 killing someone with a borrowed knife
敵已明,友未定,引友殺敵,不出自力,以損推演。

譯:作戰 的物件已經確定,而朋友的態度還不穩定,要誘導朋友去消滅敵人,避免消耗自己的力量。

When you do not have the means to attack your enemy directly, then attack using the strength of another. Trick an ally into attacking him, bribe an official to turn traitor, or use the enemy’s own strength against him.

第四計 以逸待勞 waiting at one’s ease for the exhausted enemy
困敵之勢,不以戰,損剛益柔。

譯:控制敵方力量發展的命脈來扼殺他,而不採取進攻的形勢,這就是「損剛益柔」原理的演用。

It is an advantage to choose the time and place for battle. In this way you know when and where the battle will take place, while your enemy does not. Encourage your enemy to expend his energy in futile quests while you conserve your strength. When he is exhausted and confused, you attack with energy and purpose.

第五計 趁火打劫 plundering a burning house
敵之害大,就勢取利,剛決柔也。

譯:敵方的危機很大,就乘機取利,用優勢力量攻擊軟弱的。

When a country is beset by internal conflicts, when disease and famine ravage the population, when corruption and crime are rampant, then it will be unable to deal with an outside threat. This is the time to attack. 

第六計 聲東擊西 making a feint to the east and attacking in the west
亂志亂萃,不虞「坤下兌上」之象;利其不自主而取之。

譯:敵人亂撞瞎碰,摸不清情況,這是《易經》「萃」封上所說的「坤下兌上」的混亂征狀。 必須利用敵方失去控制力的時機加以消滅。

In any battle the element of surprise can provide an overwhelming advantage. Even when face to face with an enemy, surprise can still be employed by attacking where he least expects it. To do this you must create an expectation in the enemy’s mind through the use of a feint.

 

孫子兵法第二套 敵戰計 Chapter 2: Enemy Dealing Stratagem

第七計 無中生有 creating something out of nothing
譯:誑也,非誑也,實其所誑也。 少陰,太陰,太陽。

無中生有是運用假像,但不是弄假到底。 而是使假像變真象,大小假像,掩護真象。

You use the same feint twice. Having reacted to the first and often the second feint as well, the enemy will be hesitant to react to a third feint. Therefore the third feint is the actual attack catching your enemy with his guard down.

 

第八計 暗渡陳倉 advancing secretly by an unknown path
示之以動,利其靜而有主,「益動而巽」。

譯:故意暴露行動,利用敵方固守的時機,便主動偷襲。

Deceive the enemy with an obvious approach that will take a very long time, while surprising him by taking a shortcut and sneak up to him. As the enemy concentrates on the decoy, he will miss you sneaking up to him.

 

第九計 隔岸觀火 watching a fire from the other side of the river
陽乖序亂,陰以待逆,暴戾恣睢,其勢自斃。 順以動豫,豫順以動。

譯:敵人內部分裂,秩序混亂,我便等待他發生暴亂,那時敵人窮凶極惡,翻目仇殺,勢必自行滅亡。 我要根據敵人變動作好準備;作好準備之後,還要根據敵人的變動而行動。

Delay entering the field of battle until all the other players have become exhausted fighting amongst themselves. Then go in at full strength and pick up the pieces.

 

第十計 笑裡藏刀 covering the dagger with a smile
信而安之,陰以圖之,備而後動,勿使有變:剛中柔外也。

譯:使敵人相信我方,並使其麻痹鬆懈,我則暗中策劃,充分準備,一有機會,立即動手,使他來不及應變,這是暗中厲害,表面柔和的策略。

Charm and ingratiate yourself with your enemy. When you have gained his trust, move against him in secret.

 

第十一計 李代桃僵 palming off substitute for the real thing
勢必有損,損陰以益陽。

譯:當局勢發展有所損失的時候,要捨得局部的損失,以換取全域的優勢。

There are circumstances in which you must sacrifice short-term objectives in order to gain the long-term goal. This is the scapegoat strategy whereby someone else suffers the consequences so that the rest do not.

 

第十二計 順手牽羊 picking up something in passing
微隙在所必乘,微利在所必得。 少陰,少陽。

譯:微小的漏洞必須利用,微小的利益,也必須獲得。 變敵人小的疏忽,為我方小的勝利。

While carrying out your plans be flexible enough to take advantage of any opportunity that presents itself, however small, and avail yourself of any profit, however slight.

 

孫子兵法第三套 攻戰計 Chapter 3: Attacking Stratagems

第十三計 打草驚蛇 beating the grass to frighten the snake
疑為叩實,察而後動,複者,陰之媒也。

譯:有懷疑的就要偵察實情,完全掌握了實情再行動。 反復偵察,是發現暗藏敵人的因素。

Do something unaimed, but spectacular (“hitting the grass”) to provoke a response of the enemy (“startle the snake”), thereby giving away his plans or position, or just taunt him. Do something unusual, strange, and unexpected as this will arouse the enemy’s suspicion and disrupt his thinking. More widely used as “[Do not] startle the snake by hitting the grass”. An imprudent act will give your position or intentions away to the enemy.

 

第十四計 借屍還魂 resurrecting a dead soul by borrowing a corpse
有用者不可借,不能用者,求借,借不能用者而用之。 匪我求童蒙,童蒙求我。

譯:有用的不可以利用,怕的是我不能控制它,不能利用的卻要去利用,因為我完全可以控制它,利用不能用的而控制它,這不是我受別人的支配,而是我支配別人。

Take an institution, a technology, a method, or even an ideology that has been forgotten or discarded and appropriate it for your own purpose. Revive something from the past by giving it a new purpose or bring to life old ideas, customs, or traditions and reinterpret them to fit your purposes.

 

第十五計 調虎離山 luring the tiger out of his den
待天以困之,用人以誘之,「往蹇來返」。

譯:等待天時對敵方不利時再去圍困他,用人假像去誘騙他「往前有危險,就返身離開」。

Never directly attack an opponent whose advantage is derived from its position. Instead lure him away from his position thus separating him from his source of strength.

 

第十六計 欲擒故縱 letting the enemy off in order to catch him
逼則反兵,走則減勢,緊隨勿迫。 累其氣力,消其鬥志,散而後擒。 兵不血刃,需,有孚光。

譯:逼得敵人無路可走,就會遭到堅決的反撲;讓他逃走,就會消滅敵人的氣勢,所以要緊緊地跟蹤敵人,但不要逼迫他,藉以消耗他的體力,瓦解他的士氣,等他的兵力分散了,再行再以捕捉。 這樣用兵可以避免流血,不逼迫敵人,並讓他相信,這對戰爭是有利的。

Cornered prey will often mount a final desperate attack. To prevent this you let the enemy believe he still has a chance for freedom. His will to fight is thus dampened by his desire to escape. When in the end the freedom is proven a falsehood the enemy’s morale will be defeated and he will surrender without a fight. 

第十七計 抛磚引玉 giving the enemy something to induce him to lose more valuable things
類以誘之,擊蒙也。

譯:用類似的東西去迷惑敵人,使敵人遭懵上當。

Bait someone by making him believe he gains something or just make him react to it (“toss out a brick”) and obtain something valuable from him in return (“get a jade gem”).

 

第十八計 擒賊擒王 capturing the ringleader first in order to capture all the followers
摧其堅,奪其魁,以解其體;龍戰于野,其道窮也。

譯:徹底地摧毀敵人的主力,抓住他的首領,藉以粉碎他的戰爭機構,這是一場激烈的總決戰。

If the enemy’s army is strong but is allied to the commander only by money, superstition or threats, then take aim at the leader. If the commander falls the rest of the army will disperse or come over to your side. If, however, they are allied to the leader through loyalty then beware, the army can continue to fight on after his death out of vengeance.

 

孫子兵法第四套 混戰計 Chapter 4: Chaos Stratagems

 

第十九計 釜底抽薪 extracting the firewood from under the cauldron
不敵其力,而消其勢,兌下乾上之象。

譯:力量上不能戰勝敵人,可以瓦解他的氣勢,這就是《易經》兌下乾上的《履卦》上所說的「柔履剛」的辦法。

Take out the leading argument or asset of someone; “steal someone’s thunder”. This is the very essence of indirect approach: instead of attacking enemy’s fighting forces, the attacks are directed against his ability to wage war.

 

第二十計 混水摸魚 muddling the water to catch the fish; fishing in troubled waters
乘其陰亂,利其弱而無主,隨,以向晦入宴息。

譯:乘著敵人內部混亂,利用他還是弱小而沒有主見,他隨從我,像人隨著天時吃飯、休息一樣。

Create confusion and use this confusion to further your own goals.

 

第二十一計 金蟬脫殼 slipping away by casting off a cloak; getting away like the cicada sloughing its skin
存其形,完其勢;友不疑,敵不動;巽而上蠱。

譯:保存陣地的原形,造成強大的聲勢,使友軍不懷疑,敵人也不敢貿然進犯,而我卻可以隱蔽地擊破另一支敵軍。

Mask yourself. Either leave one’s distinctive traits behind, thus becoming inconspicuous, or masquerade as something or someone else. This strategy is mainly used to escape from enemy of superior strength.

 

第二十二計 關門捉賊 catching the thief by closing / blocking his escape route
小敵困之,剝,不利有攸往。

譯:對弱小的敵人,要加以包圍殲滅;對垂死掙扎的敵人,如果從後面急追遠趕,那是很不利的。

To capture your enemy, or more generally in fighting wars, to deliver the final blow to your enemy, you must plan prudently if you want to succeed. Do not rush into action. Before you “move in for the kill”, first cut off your enemy’s escape routes, and cut off any routes through which outside help can reach them.

 

第二十三計 遠交近攻 befriending the distant enemy while attacking a nearby enemy
形禁勢格,利以近取。 害以遠隔,上火下澤。

譯:處於(扭轉)不利的形勢(局面),要考慮(阻止)它發展的方向(趨勢),(利於)攻取附近的地方,就有利,(不利於)攻擊遠隔的地方,就有害。 《易經·聧》卦說:「火苗向上冒,池水向下流,志向不同,也可以結交。 」

It is known that nations that border each other become enemies while nations separated by distance and obstacles make better allies. When you are the strongest in one field, your greatest threat is from the second strongest in your field, not the strongest from another field.

 

第二十四計 假途代虢 attacking the enemy by passing through a common neighbor
兩大之間,敵脅以從,我假以勢,困,有言不信。

譯:對處的兩個強大敵人中間的國家,敵人脅迫它時,我方卻作援求它,立即出兵。 《易經·困》卦說:「對處在困迫狀況下的國家,光空談而沒有行動,是不會被他信任的。 」

Borrow the resources of an ally to attack a common enemy. Once the enemy is defeated, use those resources to turn on the ally that lent you them in the first place.

 

孫子兵法第五套 並戰計 Chapter 5: Proximate Stratagems

 

第二十五計 偷樑換柱 stealing the beams and pillars and replacing them with rotten timbers
譯:頻更其陣,抽其勁旅,待其自敗,而後乘之,曳其輪也。

多次變動敵人的陣容,把他的兵力調開,等待他自己敗陣,然後用謀進攻他,《易經·既濟》卦說:「先拖住敵人,然後再替換他。 」

Disrupt the enemy’s formations, interfere with their methods of operations, change the rules in which they are used to following, go contrary to their standard training. In this way you remove the supporting pillar, the common link that makes a group of men an effective fighting force.

 

第二十六計 指桑駡槐 reviling/abusing the locust tree while pointing to the mulberry
大淩小者,警以誘之。 剛中而應,行險而順。

譯:強大的懾服弱小的,要用警戒的方法來誘導它。 《易經·師》卦說:適當的強硬,可以得到擁護;施用險詐,可以得到順從。

To discipline, control, or warn others whose status or position excludes them from direct confrontation; use analogy and innuendo. Without directly naming names, those accused cannot retaliate without revealing their complicity.

 

第二十七計 假癡不癲 feigning madness without becoming insane
甯偽作不知不為,不偽作假知妄為,靜不露機,雲雷屯也。

譯:寧可假裝不知道的,不行動,不可假裝知道而輕舉妄動。 要沉著,不要洩露一點機密,就像迅猛激烈的雲雷,在冬季藏入地下般的平靜。

Hide behind the mask of a fool, a drunk, or a madman to create confusion about your intentions and motivations. Lure your opponent into underestimating your ability until, overconfident, he drops his guard. Then you may attack. 

第二十八計 上屋抽梯 removing the ladder after the enemy has climbed up the roof
假之以便,唆之使前,斷其援應,陷之死地,遇毒,位不當也。

譯:故意露出破綻,引誘敵人深入我方,然後選擇有利時機,斷絕敵人的前應和後援,使它完全處於死地。 敵人這樣的下場《易經·嗑》上說的好:搶吃臘肉的嗑掉了牙,怪自己的動作不當。

With baits and deceptions, lure your enemy into treacherous terrain. Then cut off his lines of communication and avenue of escape. To save himself, he must fight both your own forces and the elements of nature.

 

第二十九計 樹上開花 putting artificial flowers on trees
借局佈勢,力小勢大;鴻漸于陸,其羽可用為儀也。

譯:借別人的局面布成陣勢,兵力弱小的看來陣容也顯得強大。 《易經·漸》卦說:鴻雁飛向大陸,全憑它的羽毛豐滿助長氣勢。

Tying silk blossoms on a dead tree gives the illusion that the tree is healthy. Through the use of artifice and disguise, make something of no value appear valuable; of no threat appear dangerous; of no use appear useful. 

第三十計 反客為主 turning from the guest into the host
乘隙插足,扼其主機,漸之進也。

譯:有空子就要插腳進去,扼住他的主腦機關。 《易經·漸》卦說:「循序而進」就是這個意思。

Usurp leadership in a situation where you are normally subordinate. Infiltrate your target. Initially, pretend to be a guest to be accepted, but develop from inside and become the owner later.

 

孫子兵法第六套 敗戰計 Chapter 6: Desperate Stratagems

 

第三十一計 美人計 using seductive women to corrupt the enemy
兵強者,攻其將。 將智者,伐其情。 將弱兵頹,其勢自萎。 利用禦寇,順相保也。

譯:兵力強大的,就要攻打他的將帥;將帥明智的,就打擊他的情緒。 將帥鬥志衰弱、部隊士氣消沉,他的氣勢必定自行萎縮。 《易經·漸》卦說:利用敵人內部的嚴重弱點來控制敵人,可以有把握地保存自己的實力。

Send your enemy beautiful women to cause discord within his camp. This strategy can work on three levels. First, the ruler becomes so enamored with the beauty that he neglects his duties and allows his vigilance to wane. Second, other males at court will begin to display aggressive behavior that inflames minor differences hindering co-operation and destroying morale. Third, other females at court, motivated by jealousy and envy, begin to plot intrigues further exacerbating the situation.

 

第三十二計 空城計 presenting a bold front to conceal unpreparedness
虛者虛之,疑中生疑;剛柔之際,奇而複奇。

譯:空虛的就讓它空虛,使人更加難以揣測;在進攻和防禦中運用空虛的戰術來隱蔽自己的空虛,越發顯得用兵出奇。

When the enemy is superior in numbers and your situation is such that you expect to be overrun at any moment, then drop all pretense of military preparedness, act calmly and taunt the enemy, so that the enemy will think you have a huge ambush hidden for them. It works best by acting calm and at ease when your enemy expects you to be tense.

 

第三十三計 反間計 sowing discord among the enemy
疑中之疑,比之向內,不自失也。

譯:在疑陣中再佈置一層疑陣。 《易經·比》卦說:來自敵方內部的援助,自己不會受到損失。

Undermine your enemy’s ability to fight by secretly causing discord between him and his friends, allies, advisors, family, commanders, soldiers, and population. While he is preoccupied settling internal disputes, his ability to attack or defend is compromised.

 

第三十四計 苦肉計 deceiving the enemy by torturing one’s own man
人不自害,受害必真。 假真真假,間以得行。 童蒙之吉,順以巽也。

譯:人不自己迫害自己,受迫害必然是真的;真的變假,間諜便乘機活動。 《易經·蒙》卦說:把他騙得乖乖的,順著他活動。

Pretending to be injured has two possible applications. In the first, the enemy is lulled into relaxing his guard since he no longer considers you to be an immediate threat. The second is a way of ingratiating yourself to your enemy by pretending the injury was caused by a mutual enemy.

 

第三十五計 連環計 coordinating one stratagem with another
將多兵眾,不可以敵,使其自累,以殺其勢。 在師中吉,承天寵也。

譯:敵方兵力強大,不能硬打,應當運用謀略,使倉儲自相牽制,藉以削弱他的力量。 《易經·師》卦說:將帥靠指軍不偏不倚,慣打勝仗的就是用兵如神。

In important matters, one should use several stratagems applied simultaneously after another as in a chain of stratagems. Keep different plans operating in an overall scheme; however, in this manner if any one strategy fails, then the chain breaks and the whole scheme fails. 

第三十六計 走為上 decamping being the best; running away as the best choice
全師避敵,在次無咎,未失常也。

譯:全軍退卻,甩開敵人,以退為進,待機破敗,這是不違背正常的法則的。

If it becomes obvious that your current course of action will lead to defeat, then retreat and regroup. When your side is losing, there are only three choices remaining: surrender, compromise, or escape. Surrender is complete defeat, compromise is half defeat, but escape is not defeat. As long as you are not defeated, you still have a chance.This is the most famous of the stratagems, immortalized in the form of a Chinese idiom: “Of the Thirty-Six Stratagems, fleeing is best”.